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Humayun, the son of Babur, held the throne while he was twenty-two. Unlike Timurid principles he did not kill the princes also due to the request of his father. He was a mild, astrology-obsessed and superstitious character nothing compared to his father. He lost Hindustan after the four-year-old rule as the consequence of his lethargic moods. The threat of Sher Shah, who was once an officer in Bihar along the Ganges, then declared himself as Biharís and Bengalís virtual ruler was inevitable. The two armies met in June 1539. He could not expect a total loyalty from his brothers as they were seeking their own territory for themselves.

After insufficient movements and fruitless efforts during the fights Humayun offered to leave Hindustan, to keep Lahore and to recognize Sind as a border between the parties. Sher Shah did not accept even the secret negotiations of Kamran promising him Kabul and he took Lahore. Humayun attempted to accompany with Hindal. He got married with fourteen-year-old Hamida, the daughter of Hindalís advisors in August 1541. The couple left Sind in 1542 and passed through the Rajasthani Desert in hope of gaining raja of Marwerís alliance but ended with failure. They reached Umarkot on their return. As their ruler was killed by Humayunís enemies he was warm welcomed.

Hamida gave birth to his son, Akbar in 15 October 1542. While he was fourteen months old he was given to the protection of his uncle Askari temporarily during Humayunís visit to Persia in cold winter to have shahís support. The Shah welcomed him in January 1542. Humayun presented him Koh-i Nur but Shah insisted on changing Sunni Humayunís sect into Shia which was the official religion in Persia after 1501.

Humayun accepted his request (only) in words. A Persian army joined with Humayun's forces in 1545. He captured Kandahar from his brother Askari, Kabul from Kamran and reunited with his son Akbar. The reconciliation period between the brothers did not last long. Humayun surpassed Askariís rebellion by sending him on a pilgrimage to Mecca, where he died such in exile. Kamran attempted to capture Kabul twice but ended with his failure.
Although Humayun was forced by the advisors for Kamranís execution, he blinded Kamran and sent him on a pilgrimage to Mecca. Kamran also died there.
With the death of Sher Shah of Hindustan his successor Islam Shah held the throne. Taking advantage from the chaotic situation he recaptured Delhi after fifteen years, in July 1555 together with his son Akbar. Humayun died after an accidental fall in 1556 at forty seven years old almost the same age with his father Babur.

Shias: the descendants of the prophet through his cousin and son in law Ali.

Sunni: those who follow the custom of Muhammad, Sunna.

Humayun - Taj Mahal



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