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Babur, the founder or the Mogul Empire enthroned in 1494 at the age of twelve, as the ruler of the kingdom of Ferghana, today’s Uzbekistan and Afghanistan. His wife Ma’suma Sultan Begim gave birth to his first son Humayun meaning “fortunate” in 1508. It was followed by other sons namely Karman (1509) Askari (1516), Hindal (1519) of the other wives.

He took Samarkand twice but could not succeed to control it and the city was captured by the Uzbek tribe. He captured Timurid territory Kabul after the death of its ruler, one of uncles, in 1504 during his twenties. He attempted to capture his favourite city Samarkand in 1511 but could not hold it and the Uzbeks regained it after eight months. He then turned his eagerness to Khyber Pass on the northern India. He made four campaigns from the beginning 1519 and invaded Hindustan in the autumn of 1525.

Babur met against the one hundred thousand men army of Sultan Ibrahim on the plains only fifty miles from Delhi in April 1526 which was approximately five times greater than the Babur’s. But having the advantage of the Turkish cannons and matchlock muskets which were used for the first time in northern India, twenty thousand of men including Sultan Ibrahim were killed within five hours and Babur enjoyed his sovereignty in northern India. His son Humayun gave Mogul’s famous the very big diamond namely “Koh-i Nur” – Mountain of Light” as a present which was given by the Gwalior Dynasty for their protection when their ruler on the side of Ibrahim was dead at Panipat. Babur found nothing interesting in Hindustan except gold and money. He thought the cities and provinces were all lack of aesthetic beauties and without any harmony.

Although he kept his enemy Sultan Ibrahim’s mother Buwa in safe at the court she attempted to poison Babur on December 21, 1526. When he vomited just after the meal he realised his poisoning and drank some opium in milk as an antidote. He punished Buwa and her accomplices harshly.
Unfortunately the severe illness of his son Humayun caused a very deep sadness in Babur. He was suggested to give one of his valuables as a sacrifice for the cure of his son, meaning the unique Koh-i Nur. But he offered his life to God and started to lose his health while Humayun was recovering quickly. He left Humayun as the successor and was recognized before Babur’s death in 1530.

Babur was first buried in a garden opposite the future’s Taj Mahal and then he was buried in Kabul in a garden on the hillside with the panoramic view of the city according to his last request.

Baburnama is known as the first autobiography in Islamic literature based on the diary of Babur.

Babur - Taj Mahal



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