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Aurangzeb


The reign of Aurangzeb is rather cruel and Puritan. Alcohol, cannabis, court music and poetry and even the official court chronicles were banned. The traditional emperorís morning audience to public was also left behind. Aurangzeb built vast mosques around the important Hindu temples at Mathura near Agra and Benares on the Ganges which could be the symbols of Islamic pressure on Hindus far from the earlier policy of Mogul tolerance. The withdrawal of jizya in 1679, the tax taken from the non-believers was the clear sign of Aurangzebís intolerance and he conducted a military campaign in the same year from Delhi to the Rajputs, once one of the most reliable Mogulís allies.

Janahara , the forgiven sister of Augrenzeb died in September 1681 at the age of sixty-seven on the eighteenth month of Augrenzeb campaign. Rewarded with the title of Sahibat-uz-zamani ĖMistress of the Age by his brother, Janahara, was buried in Delhi in a modest tomb covered with grass close to the grave of a Sufi saint according to her request.

Advantaging from the chaos in Marwar (Jodhpur) with the death of the raja, Augrenzeb easily captured the state and destroyed many Hindu temples, therefore, receiving the publicís hatred. The other Rajput state of Mewar(Upaipur) was Aurangzebís next concern. Akbar, the twenty-three year old son of Augrenzeb was positioned as commander. However he was not succeeded enough and consequently was dismissed from the army by Augrenzeb which was the reason for Akbarís rebel. Supported by the Rajputs who have also common interest, Akbar gathered a powerful army together with his ally, but the army was broken apart by Aurangzebís clever written letters of conspiracy.
Akbar escaped as refugee to Deccan in the south on the lands of Hindu Marathas who were not in good relationship with Augrenzeb. The previous chieftain, Shivaji killed Shaista Khan -the Mogul garrison and the brother of Mumtaz in 1663 while he was fighting as a guerrilla against the Mogul. He was known as the symbol of Indiaís independence struggles with his growing power on Deccan mountains. After the death of Shivaji, his son Shambuji was on duty a year before when Akbar sought refuge. Augrenzeb decided to occupy the enemy Muslim states of Bijapur and Golconda beforehand to ease the attack to the Marathas. He first invaded Bijapur after fifteen months of blockade in June 1685 and the next state of Golconda surrendered after eight month of siege. Meanwhile, Akbar managed to escape to Persia with the help of French merchants. But this could not prevent Aurangzebís eagerness to defeat the Marathas. Shambuji was captured and was killed torturously with the order of Augrenzeb, as because he did not give any clue of his treasureís location. The events during the reign of Augrenzeb undoubtedly reveal that the Mogul Empire, was become an occupying power as in the times of Babur by enlarging its borders not a tolerable empire anymore. Augrenzeb turned to the north to Ahmednagar on the east of Mumbai in October 1705 after sixteen years and died in February 21, 1707 and was buried in Khuldabad, about twenty miles from Ahmadabad in a modest tomb unlikely to the eye-catching monumental mausoleums of his parents due to his request.


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